Coastal Surveillance Sector Report 2010

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The Third UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also known as the Law of the Sea Convention, which was signed in December 1982, extended the jurisdiction of coastal nations to include a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which came into force in 1994. This set a trend, with Navies concentrating on warfighting missions while Coast Guards focussed on protecting national sovereignty in home waters. Establishing the EEZ required increased resources, including the acquisition of new capabilities for maritime surveillance and enforcement.