The Doctrine of Failure in Afghanistan: Rethinking nation building and the punitive expedition
Declaring Victory in Afghanistan, an OtherWords cartoon by Khalil Bendib.
However well-intentioned it may be, nation building in a state with a tribal culture may be a failed doctrine from the outset. In cases where intervention is essential and where indigenous cultural resistance to adoption of Western-style democratic values is high and entrenched, the punitive expedition may be the best or "least bad" response.
The changing nature of war
War and conflict have changed. The old inte...
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